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Siman 681 - Using Chanukah Candles for Havdalah (and the Order)
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Siman 681, se'if 1
Can one use the same candle both for the havdalah of the departure of Shabbos and also for that night of Chanukah? ["Halacha Sources" presentation of this entire siman]
The Shulchan Aruch writes: One may not use the Chanukah "candle" for havdalah; because one may not derive benefit from its light, and one cannot say the bracha over the "candle" [of havdalah] unless one "uses" its light.
The Mishnah Berurah writes (put simply): However, that is only true when following the minhag to do the Mitzvah of Chanukah candle-lighting before havdalah [see the next se'if]. In that case, when one gets to havdalah, the candle is already assur as a Chanukah candle. Conversely, it is just fine to use the same candle for both Mitzvahs in the reverse order, i.e. first using it for havdalah, then putting it out, and then re-lighting it for the Chanukah Mitzvah.
[Classic sources: Yerushalmi cited by the Tur, Avudraham, and Ohr Zarua; apparently missing from our texts.]
Siman 681, se'if 2
What is the correct order of priority (i.e. which is lit first) between the candle lit for Chanukah and the one for the havdalah of the departure of Shabbos? ["Halacha Sources" presentation of this entire siman]
The Shulchan Aruch writes: The Chanukah "candle" is lit in the synagogue before havdalah.
The Rema writes: [In addition,] all the more so in one's home one lights and afterwards says havdalah; for after all, he already "was mavdil" [i.e. fulfilled the Mitzvah of havdalah] in the synagogue [see Mishnah Berurah for clarification].
The Mishnah Berurah writes (put simply): Other authorities prefer the minhag of saying havdalah first, even in the synagogue itself. In practice, in the synagogue the ancient minhag should be kept (i.e. to light before havdalah); but as for at home, "whatever you do - you're covered."
[Classic sources: See Berachos 51b-52a.]