THE SHULCHAN ARUCH DIRECTORY (under construction)
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Siman 269 - The Halacha Regarding the Kiddush [said] in the Synagogue
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Siman 269, se'if 1
(a) Is it the minhag to say kiddush in the synagogue Shabbos evening? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]
The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes, but it would be better to perpetuate the minhag of not doing so (which is in fact the minhag in the Land of Israel), because "kiddush can only be in the place of [one's] meal" (see siman 273), and [accordingly] this [kiddush] was [clearly] instituted only on account of guests who eat and drink in the synagogue (to "cause them to be yotzei" their obligation), and nowadays no guests eat in the synagogue. (The reasoning behind the places who do have the minhag is that despite the above, the enactment is not void.)
[Classic sources: Pesachim 101a (points1a-f).]
(b) Who should "taste" [i.e. partake of] the "wine" of the kiddush which is said in the synagogue Shabbos evening? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]
The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Not the one who says kiddush (because of the above [in the previous question]); rather, he should "give a taste of it" to a minor.
(c) Should the congregation stand when kiddush is being said in the synagogue Shabbos evening? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]
The Rema writes (put simply): Yes.