THE SHULCHAN ARUCH DIRECTORY (under construction)

 

The Halachos of Shabbos (Night) back to the "Shabbos Night" page

Siman 271 - The Halachos of [Saying] Kiddush Over "Wine" [on Friday evening]

 

Kitzur Shulchan Aruch material for the siman: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3, Part 4, Part 5, Part 6, Part 7

Material from Rav Ostroff explaining much of the siman: Part 1, Part 2, Part 3

Rav Neustadt's practical applications: on "early Shabbos", covering "challah" breads, and eating before kiddush

 

NOTE: This is a temporary page. We apologize for the lack of proper "design".

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 1

 

Once one arrives home (from the Shabbos evening prayer service), what is the proper time for him to [say kiddush and] eat [his meal]? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Immediately.

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 105b (point2h1) - 106a (points2b-f), Berachos 27b (points3b-d).]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 2

 

(a) Are women included in the Torah mandated obligation to say kiddush on Shabbos? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes - although it is a positive time-bound Mitzvah - because the word "zachor" [in the pasuk which mandates kiddush] is linked to the word "shamor" [which comprises the negative Mitzvahs of Shabbos], and therefore, since women are obligated in "observing" - they are likewise obligated in "remembering".

          [Classic sources: Berachos 20b (points2o-t1).]

 

(b) Can women [be the ones to say the Shabbos kiddush and thus] "cause men to be yotzei" their obligation? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes, since the women are obligated by Torah mandate just like the men.

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 3

 

If one has to choose between "wine" for the Shabbos evening kiddush, "wine" for the kiddush said during the day, meal necessities which are "the honor of the day" - or "the honor of the night", what is the correct order of priority to follow? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): If one has limited buying ability, the most worthwhile of all four is "wine" for the evening kiddush. The Baraisa only said "The honor of the day precedes the honor of the night" regarding the remaining meal necessities (whereas if one has only one cupful of "wine" to use for kiddush, the "honor of the night" takes precedence).

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 105a (point2e).]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 4

 

(a) Is it muttar even "initially" [in contrast with se'if 7] to "taste something" before one's Shabbos kiddush? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): No; even water is assur.

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 105a (points1a-h); see also the next question and se'if 7.]

 

(b) Given the above, how much does the arrival of Shabbos require one to interrupt a meal started by day - does he "spread a cloth [over his bread] and say kiddush"? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes.

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 100a (points1f-g).]

 

(c) If the arrival of Shabbos forces one to interrupt a "drinking meal" [i.e. during the above-mentioned meal one was drinking as well], does he omit the bracha on the "wine" from his kiddush? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes.

          [Classic sources: Yerushalmi Berachos 11a (pdf - SeePage64pointR).]

 

(d) If the arrival of Shabbos forces one to interrupt a meal in order to say kiddush, does he say the bracha over bread once again? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes (unless he lacks "wine" and is saying the kiddush itself over bread). However, some disagree (i.e. holding one never repeats it).

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 5

 

(a) If two people would be drinking [as Shabbos approached] and they would say "Let us proceed to say kiddush," how would that affect their continuing to drink before saying kiddush? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): It would become assur for them to do so. Furthermore, if they chose to drink before saying kiddush anyway, they would still need to first say the bracha (over wine) anew.

          [Classic sources: Based on Pesachim 103b (points2e2-4) (and 105a - see Gra).]

 

(b) What should one do if he forgot to say the Shabbos kiddush or havdalah until after he already said the bracha over bread? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Rema writes (put simply): If he remembered before eating, he should say kiddush over the bread [itself - i.e. say the bracha of kiddush immediately]; but havdalah cannot be said over bread, so in the case of havdalah one should eat first.

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 6

 

(a) What if the time for the Shabbos kiddush arrives when one is about to say Birkas HaMazon at the conclusion of a meal? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): He says Birkas HaMazon over one cup [of "wine"] and then kiddush over the second; however, some hold that he "spreads a cloth and says kiddush" [like in the case above (4b)] and eats something before saying Birkas HaMazon.

          The Rema writes (put simply): The minhag is to follow the latter position, to avoid the disagreements within the first; i.e. whether to drink from the first cup before kiddush, whether one must eat something after the kiddush so it will be "in the place of the meal," and also whether to say "Retzay" [which is the subject of the next question].

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 102a (points2a-b).]

 

(b) If one says Birkas HaMazon on Shabbos before he has said kiddush (i.e. in the above case according to the first position), does he add the supplement "Retzay"? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes, he has to say it.

          The Rema writes (put simply): The Halacha follows the position that one does not say it, since the meal began when it was not Shabbos.

          [Classic sources: Tosefta Berachos 5:4.]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 7

 

If one does "taste something" before his Shabbos kiddush, does he still say kiddush (i.e. bedieved, in contrast with question 4a)? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes.

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 106b (points4c,i-j), 107a (points1a,d).]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 8

 

If one has not said the kiddush of Shabbos evening until the day, does he say it then (bedieved)? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes, he can compensate for the omission (even if intentional) throughout that day.

          The Rema elaborates (put simply): He says it in its entirety, except for [the Torah section] "Vayechulu".

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 105a-b (points2a-f), 107a (points1b,e).]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 9

 

In what way should one use a cloth to prepare the bread on his Shabbos table before kiddush? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes: A cloth must be on the table, under the bread, and another spread over the bread.

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 100b (points1j-k).]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 10

 

(a) Is the Shabbos kiddush said over a full cup of "wine", from which no one has tasted? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes.

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 105b (point2i5) - 106a (points1a-d), Yerushalmi Berachos 55b (pdf - SeePage285,pointsE,F).]

 

(b) Does the cup to be used for the Shabbos kiddush also share all the other requirements of a cup used for Birkas HaMazon? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes. [These are discussed in siman 183.]

          [Classic sources: Yerushalmi Berachos 55b (pdf - SeePage285,pointsE,F).]

 

(c) Does one say the Torah section "Vayechulu" [i.e. beginning B'reishis 2:1] to introduce the Shabbos evening kiddush? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes.

 

(d) When the [bracha of] the Shabbos evening kiddush is to be said, is the bracha over wine said first? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes.

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 114a (points2a-c4) & Berachos 51b (AllOfPoint5j).]

 

(e) While saying "Vayechulu", and during the bracha section of the Shabbos evening kiddush, should one stand or sit? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): One says "Vayechulu" standing, and then says the rest of kiddush.

          The Rema writes: One can stand for "the rest", but it is better to sit. [Furthermore,] the minhag is to sit even while saying "Vayechulu", just that when starting we stand up a bit out of respect for the Name [of Hashem] (since we begin [by saying the words] "Yom HaShishi Vayechulu HaShamayim" and the Name [of Hashem] is hinted at by the "rashei teivos" [i.e. the four "first letters" of the words spell out the Name]).

 

(f) While saying the Shabbos evening kiddush, should one look at the Shabbos candles or at the cup of "wine"? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Rema writes (put simply): When beginning one should look at the candles; during the [brachos of] kiddush - at the cup.

          [Note: Looking at a cup while saying a bracha over it is discussed in siman 183, se'if 4.]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 11

 

(a) If one has only enough "wine" for about one cup, is there some way that he should use it Shabbos evening - and taste some - and still have a cupful for the kiddush said during the day? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): [If he would be left without any for havdalah, see the next question. If he has another cupful for that:] Yes: In the evening he pours some into a separate cup before drinking it, so the remaining cupful will not become "pagum" [i.e. deficient due to having been drunk from], and if this leaves less than the required revi'is of "wine", he should dilute it.

          The Mishnah Berurah writes (put simply): Because of the position of Tosafos (that a cup used for an obligation requires that the tasting be from a cup containing a revi'is), it is correct [moreso than the above] that before drinking he pours some into the separate cup being sure to leave a revi'is in the first, and then he drinks the required "cheeksful" [see se'if 13] from the first cup, and finally he pours from the second cup back into the first (making it no longer "pagum" as ruled in siman 186, se'if 6). (As for diluting the "wine", that can only work if it will not make it too diluted - as set forth in siman 272, se'if 5. Otherwise - see question c.)

          [Classic sources: Yerushalmi Berachos 55b (pdf - SeePage285,pointsE,F).]

 

(b) Is saving "wine" for havdalah after Shabbos of even higher priority than using it for kiddush (i.e. even that of the evening)? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes, because havdalah cannot be said over bread. (Consequently, the ruling in the previous question is only relevant if one had another cupful for havdalah.)

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 113a (points2a-c).]

 

(c) What if one has exactly enough wine for the cup of the Shabbos evening kiddush (plus enough for exactly one more for havdalah according to the Shulchan Aruch in the previous question) and diluting it more would make it too diluted [as above]? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Then there is nothing to be done but to choose the evening kiddush over the one said during the day [as above in se'if 3].

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 12

 

Should one wash his hands before saying kiddush on Shabbos (and if not, what should one do if he already did wash)? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): One should not. If one did, that shows a partiality to bread, so he should then say kiddush over that.

          The Rema writes (put simply): The minhag in "our areas" is to follow the position that one should wash first and [nevertheless] say kiddush over "wine". One should not part from this (except on the night of Pesach, as discussed in siman 473).

          The Mishnah Berurah writes (put simply): The decision of a number of authorities is not to wash first (at least the one who will actually say the kiddush), but if one did he should still say kiddush over "wine".

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 106a-b (points4a-b1), Berachos 52b (point2e3).]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 13

 

What is the amount that someone [see the next se'if] has to drink from the Shabbos kiddush cup? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): One "cheeksful", i.e. what would seem to fill a [medium-sized] person's cheek if he put all of it on one side of his mouth, which equals the majority of a revi'is.

          [Classic sources: Pesachim 107a (points2n-p), Yoma 80a (points4a-g), Pesachim 108b (point3g).]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 14

 

Who should drink (the above amount) from the Shabbos kiddush cup - and can the drinking of several people be combined? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): If one of those present [i.e. to hear kiddush] - other than the one who himself said the kiddush - drinks the full amount, [the group who participated in this kiddush] was yotzei [each one's obligation]. It is "the choicest way to do the Mitzvah" for all of them to drink [some], but two people's drinking cannot be combined to reach the required amount. There are other positions: some hold that they can be combined; and the Gaonim hold (specifically in the case of kiddush, as opposed to other cups over which a bracha is said) that the one who himself said the kiddush must drink (and it is appropriate to be concerned for that).

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 15

 

If there was a "minor" interruption before one got to drink from the Shabbos kiddush cup, how much (if anything) does he have to repeat? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): If it was speech, or if the cup spilled (in which case another must be brought), then one repeats the bracha over wine, but not [the bracha of] kiddush [itself].

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 16

 

Is it muttar for someone to hear the Shabbos kiddush and then drink before the one who actually went ahead to say it drinks? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Only if this "one who heard" already had his own cup of "wine" - and it was not "pagum" [as opposed to in the next se'if] - so he (personally) has no need for the kiddush-sayer's cup.

          [Classic sources: Berachos 47a (point1c) (using the Yerushalmi 44a to resolve the contradiction from Pesachim 106a.]

 

 

Siman 271, se'if 17

 

Should the one who said the Shabbos kiddush pour from his cup into those of the others who will drink? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): It is only necessary if their cups of "wine" are "pagum" [i.e. deficient due to having been drunk from] (so they will all be drinking from a cup which is not "pagum" [any more]).