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The Halachos of Shabbos (Night) back to the "Shabbos Night" page

 

Siman 277 - Not To Cause the Extinguishing of the [Shabbos] "Candle"

 

Kitzur Shulchan Aruch material from Torah.org's "Halacha Yomi": for se'if 1, for se'if 3(a-b), for se'if 3(c)

See also Rav Ostroff's presentation: for se'if 4

 

NOTE: This is a temporary page. We apologize for the lack of proper "design".

 

 

[Note: The general subject of causing a fire to become extinguished on Shabbos (indirectly) is mainly set forth in siman 334 (se'ifim 22-24).]

 

Siman 277, se'if 1

 

When is it assur to open or close a door on Shabbos out of concern for the melacha of kindling or extinguishing a "candle"? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): (1) If the "candle" stands "behind" the door, in such a way that wind blowing through the doorway could extinguish it, it is therefore assur to open the door [in the usual fashion (Rema), whereas opening it gently is muttar while the wind is not actually blowing (see Mishnah Berurah and Bi'ur Halacha)].

          The Rema writes (put simply): In this case, to close the door is muttar. (And the Halacha of this case #1 applies equally when a "candle" on a table stands opposite a window, as well.)

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): (2) If the "candle" is attached to the wall toward which the door swings, then out of concern for the banging of the door putting out the "candle" it is assur to open the door in the usual fashion - or to close it [in a way that could shake the adjacent wall (Mishnah Berurah)]; rather, one should open and close it gently. (3) If the "candle" is attached to the door itself, then it is assur to open or close it out of concern that this will shift the oil towards the wick or away from it.

          The Rema writes (put simply): In the case of a wax candle, it is [naturally] muttar to open or close the door even if the candle is attached to it.

          [Classic sources: Shabbos 120b (points4k-n1) (with Rashi and Tosafos - points5a-a4).]

 

 

Siman 277, se'if 2

 

Is it ever assur to open or close a door on Shabbos out of concern for the melacha of kindling or extinguishing a large fire, due to the wind? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): If the fire is somewhat close to the doorway, then it is assur to open the door even if all there is [outside] is a commonplace wind, but it is muttar to close the door in such a case - and one need not be concerned for the melacha of extingushing.

          [Classic sources: Shabbos 120b (points4o-r) (with Tosafos - no.6).]

 

 

Siman 277, se'if 3

 

(a) How can one effectively move a "candle" sitting on a plank on Shabbos, without concern for the melacha of extinguishing or kindling (i.e. when the plank has not become inherently "muktzeh" as is dealt with in the next question)? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): One can tilt the plank such that the "candle" falls, even if it is burning, as long as he does not intend to put it out, and as long as it is made of wax or the like or at least currently contains no oil (whereas if it contains oil, it is impossible for the "tilting" not to bring the oil closer to the wick, this constituting the melacha of kindling).

          The Rema writes (put simply): [Regardless,] if it is not altogether necessary [for him to tilt the plank,] it is best to have a non-Jew do it.

          [Classic sources: Shabbos 120b (point4i) with Tosafos (no.4).]

 

(b) When is it assur to move a plank that has a "candle" on it on Shabbos due to the plank's having become inherently "muktzeh" (as a "bassis" - i.e. a "support" of that which it is assur to move)? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): If the "candle" was left upon it knowingly, as opposed to if it was forgotten there.

          The Mishnah Berurah writes (put simply): For further details regarding this distinction, see below in siman 309 [se'if 4].

          [Classic sources: Shabbos 120b (point4j).]

 

(c) Is it assur to touch a plank that has a "candle" on it on Shabbos? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Rema writes (put simply): No, since this does not cause the "candle" to move. [This is in contrast with 265:3 above, where we learn that under certain circumstances it is assur to touch a "candle".] Similarly, one may touch the synagogue "candelabra" [i.e. whose "candles" rest on a sure base and are not "hanging" (Mishnah Berurah)] even while its "candles" are burning, as long as he does not tilt it.

          [Classic sources: See Shabbos 151a (point3a).]

 

 

Siman 277, se'if 4

 

Is "in a tree" a place where one may not position the "candle" he lights for Shabbos (or a festival), out of concern that after it goes out he will remove it (which is a way to utilize something attached to the ground that is assur as discussed below 336:1)? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): In the case of Shabbos there is no such concern [since (regardless of its position) it is assur to move the "candle" on Shabbos even after it goes out - as will be discussed below in (the first half of) siman 279 (Mishnah Berurah)], but in the case of [a mere] Yom Tov one may not do it.

          [Classic sources: Shabbos 45a (points1a-a2).]

 

 

Siman 277, se'if 5

 

Is it muttar to cover a "candle" with a dish on Shabbos out of concern for its fire spreading to a nearby beam (i.e. may one move a utensil in order to "deal with" something "muktzeh")? [Request "Halacha Sources" discussion]

          The Shulchan Aruch writes (put simply): Yes.

          The Mishnah Berurah writes (put simply): If the dish is metal (so that its heating constitutes a melacha), or if the "candle" will become extinguished, then this is muttar only if lives are endangered.

          [Classic sources: Shabbos 121a (point3a) and 43a (points1a-b,2f-g,3a-c).]